Critical Thinking Disposition among Medical Students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

Shirin Iranfar, Vida Sepahi, Ahmad Khoshay, Mansour Rezaei, Behzad Karami Matin, Farahnaz Keshavarzi, Homayoun Bashiri


Introduction: Critical thinking as a process of purposeful self-regulatory judgment leads to problem solving and correct decision making in individuals. In the modern world, health care faces rapid change and burgeoning amount of knowledge. Possessing critical thinking is essential for individuals in health care centers, specially when they are forced to solve clinical problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate critical thinking disposition among medical students in various levels of education.

Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, we determined critical thinking disposition among 289 medical students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. The students were studying at different levels of general physician education. In Iran general physician education divided into four levels; basic sciences, physiopathology courses, clerkship and internship. They were selected using stratified sampling. Data were collected using a questionnaire that consisted of two parts; demographic information of the participants and California Critical Thinking Disposition. To analysis the data, both descriptive and inferential statistics (One-way ANOVA) were employed using SPSS-16 software.

Results: Our findings indicated that 98.6% of the students lacked critical thinking disposition, 1.4% were ambivalent disposition and no one had positive disposition to critical thinking. The highest acquired score of critical thinking was for truth-seeking (20.4%) and the lowest score acquired for analyticity (4.8%). The results revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between mean score of participants with regards to their critical thinking disposition in various educational levels.

Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that medical students lacked appropriate critical thinking disposition.

Keywords: Medical students, Clinical judgment, Thinking

Full Text:



Khalilzadeh N, Soliamannejad A. Critical thinking. 1th ed. Qom: Mehr Amiralmomenin publication; 2004. [Persian]

Iranfar Sh. A study of developing critical thinking in the students of nursing through collaborative and individual methods of learning in the Kermanshah, Iran (Dissertation). University of Mumbai; India, 2009.

Barkhordari M, Jalalmanesh S, Mahmoudi M. The relationship between critical thinking disposition and self esteem in third and fourth year bachelor nursing students. IJME. 2009; 9(1): 13-19. [Persian]

Myrick F, Younge O. Preceptor questioning and student critical thinking. Journal of Professional Nursing. 2002; 18(3): 167-181.

Hasanpour M, Mohammadi R, Dabbaghi F, Haghdoost Oskouie F, Yadavar Nikravesh M, Salsali M, et al. The need for change in medical sciences education: A step towards developing critical thinking. Iran Journal of Nursing. 2005; 18 (44): 39-49. [Persian]

Facione P, Facione N, Giancarlo C. California critical thinking disposition inventory: Inventory manual. Millbrae, CA: The California Academic Press. Published by insight assessment; 2001.

Bigdeli H. The relationship between critical thinking and self-esteem and academic achievement in the humanities and engineering students (Dissertation). Tehran: Tehran University; 2006. [Persian]

Noshadi N. Human sciences students' critical thinking dispositions: Provide a conceptual framework for developing students' critical thinking humanities. Strategies for Promoting the Humanities in the Country. 2007; 263-299. [Persian]

Gharib M, Rabieian M, Salsali M, Hadjizadeh E, Sabouri Kashani A, Khalkhali H. Critical thinking skills and critical thinking dispositions in freshmen and senior students of health care management. IJME. 2009; 9(2): 125-135. [Persian]

May BA, Edell V, Butell S, Doughty J, Langford C. Critical thinking and clinical competence: a study of their relationship in BSN seniors; Journal of Nursing Education. 1999; 38(3): 100-110.

Wangensteen S, Johansson I. S, Björkström M. E, Nordström G. Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2010; 66(10): 2170-2181.

Hajazi A, Borjaliloo S. Critical thinking: gender or field of study? Journal of Scientific and Research on Woman’s Studies. 2008; 2(3): 14-28. [Persian]

Broadbear JT, Keyser BB. An approach to teaching for critical thinking in health education; The Journal of School health. 2000; 70(8): 322-326.

Tiwari A, Avery A, Lai P. Critical thinking disposition of Hong Kong Chinese and Australian nursing students. Journal of Advanced Nursing 2003; 44(3): 298-307.

Cisneros RM. Assessment of critical thinking in ph¬armacy students; American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 2009; 73(4): Article 66.

Profetto-McGrath GP. The relationship of critical thinking skills and and critical thinking disposition of baccalaureate nursing students; Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2003; 43(6): 569-577.

Azodi P, Jahanpoor F, Sharif F. Critical thinking skills of students in Bushehr University of Medical Sciences. Magazine of Elearning Distribution in Academy. 2010; 1(2): 10-16. [Persian]

Shafieh Sh, Khalili H, Mesgarafi H. Evaluation of critical thinking skills in nursing students of Zahedan Nursing and Midwifery Faculty. Journal of Teb va Tazkiyeh. 2004; 53: 20-24. [Persian]

Ranjbar H, Esmaili Habibollah. A study on the nursing and midwifery students’ critical thinking disposition and its relation with their educational status. Journal of Urmia Nursing and Midwifery Faculty. 2006; 4(1): 11-17. [Persian]

Zarghi N. Comparsison of critical thinking between bachelor students nursing (Dissertation). Ghilan: Ghilan University Medical Sciences; 1995. [Persian]

Mirmolaei T, Shabani H, Babaei Gh, Abdehagh Z. Comparison of critical thinking among first and last trimester bachelor midwifery students. Hayat. 2004; 3(10): 69-78. [Persian]

Abdehag Z. Comparsison of critical thinking between freshman and senior master of midwifery students [Dissertation]. Tehran: Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 2004. [Persian]

Baba mohammadi H, Khalili H. Critical thinking skills of nursing students in Semnan University of Medical Sciences. IJME. 2004; 4 (2): 23-31. [Persian]

Hoseini A, Bahrami M. Comparison of critical thinking between freshman and senior bachelor students. IJME. 2002; 2 (2): 21-26. [Persian]

Amini M, Fazlinejad N. Critical thinking skills in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences students. Hormozghan Medical Journal. 2010; 14(3): 213-218. [Persia


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.