Design, Formulation and Physicochemical Evaluation of Acetaminophen Effervescent Tablets

Abolfazl Aslani, Parisa Eatesam

Abstract


Background: The main objective of this study was to design, formulate and evaluate the physicochemical properties of 500 mg acetaminophen effervescent tablets, in order to accelerate its analgesic and antipyretic effects in patients with pill swallowing problems.

Methods: Formulations with 500 mg of acetaminophen were prepared with effervescent bases including tartaric acid, citric acid, sodium bicarbonate, and PEG6000. Flowability of powders and granules was determined by measurement of bulk and tapped density, compressibility index and Hausner's ratio. Three methods were applied to prepare tablets: direct compression, wet granulation and fusion. The effervescence time, hardness, pH, thickness, CO2 content, water content, weight variation, and content uniformity of the prepared tablets were investigated. In order to overcome the bitter taste of acetaminophen, different sweeteners and fruity essences such as orange, lemon, and cherry flavors were applied. Panel taste was performed using 20 volunteers.

Findings: The physicochemical characteristics of three different methods of preparing tablets were pretty similar. Wet granulated formulations had higher hardness and better flowability while direct compressed tablets had stable effervescence time and better solubility. According to the panel taste, orange flavor was more acceptable.

Discussion: Wet granulated tablets which were prepared using alcohol and PVP had higher hardness and variable effervescence time in comparison to direct compressed tablets. Flowability of wet granulated formulations was better than the one of direct compressed formulations.


References


References

Lachman L, Liberman HA. Kanig JL. The Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger; 1986: 183, 293-300, 334-5.

Lindberg NO, Hansson H. Effervescent Pharmaceuticals. 3rd edi. Swarbrick j, editor. Encyclopedia of Pharmaceutical Technology. New York: Informa Healthcare USA Inc; 2007: 1454-65.

Prabhakar C, Krishna KB. A review on effervescent tablets. Int J Pharm Technol. 2011; 3(1): 704-12.

Liberman HA, Lachman L, Schwartz JB. Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: Tablets. 2nd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc; 1989: 285-328.

Gohel MC, Jogani PD. A review of co-processed directly compressible excipients. J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci. 2005; 8(1): 76-93.

Mosby's Drug Consult. St. Louis: An Imprint of Elsevier Science; 2003: III-16-7.

Drug Information for the Health Care Professional. 21st ed. Micromedex Thomson Healthcare; 2001: 8-13.

Ward RM, Bates BA, Benitz WE, Burchfield DJ, Ring JC, Walls RP, et al. Acetaminophen toxicity in children. Pediatrics. 2001; 108:1020-4.

Kalantzi L, Reppas C, Dressman JB, Amidon GL, Jungiger HE, Midha KK, et al. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: Acetaminophen (paracetamol). J of Pharm Sci. 2006; 95(1): 4-14.

Kumar SD, Bihari GV, Suresh P. Solubility improvement using solid dispersion; Strategy, mechanism and characterization: Responsiveness and prospect way outs. Int Res J pharm. 2011; 2(1): 55-60.

Yadav PS, Kumar V, Pratap Singh U, Raj Bhat H, Mazumder B. Physicochemical characterization and in vitro dissolution Studies of Solid dispersions of Ketoprofen with PVP K30 and D-mannitol. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 2013; 21: 77-84.

United State Pharmacopeia 31- National Formulary 26. Washington: Board of Trustees; 2008. Vol 2: 639-41, 676, 1269.

Yanze FM, Duru C, Jacob MA. Process to produce effervescent tablets: Fluidized bed dryer melt granulation. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2000; 26(11): 1167-76.

Yoon SL, Grundmann O, Keane D, Urbano T, Moshiree B. Clinical evaluation of liquid placebos for an herbal supplement, STW5, in Healthy Volunteers. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2012; 20: 267-74.

Moghimipour E, Akhgari A, Ghassemian Z. Formulation of glucosamine effervescent granules. Sci Med J. 2010; 9(1): 21-34.

Ghassemi Dehkordi N, Aslani A, Gordanpour N. Optimization and development of chamomil drop formulation. Pajouhesh and Sazandegi. 2007; 75: 146-51.

Sweetman SC, editor. Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. 36 ed. London: The Pharmaceutical press; 2009: preface VII.

Chadha R, Kapoor VK, Kumar A. Analytical techniques used to characterize drug-polyvinylpyrrolidone systems in solid and liquied states- An overview. J Sci Ind Res. 2006; 65: 459-69.

Aslani A, Fattahi F. Formulation, Characterization and physicochemical evaluation of potassium citrate effervescent tablets. APB. 2012; 3(1): 217-25.

Rajalakshmi G, Vamsi CH, Balachandar R, Damodharan N. Formulation and evaluation of diclofenac potassium effervescent tablets. Int J Pharm Biomed Res. 2011; 2(4):237-43.

Aslani A, Jahangiri H. Formulation, characterization and physicochemical evaluation of effervescent ranitidine tablets. APB. 2013; x(x): xxx-xxx.


Full Text: PDF XML HTML

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


J. Rep. Pharm. Sci. (JRPS)