Comparison of craving for opioid in opioid-dependent individuals and people under methadone maintenance treatment

Azita Chehri, Fereshte Mirzaee, Habibolah Khazaie, Omid Rezaei, Hamed Ekhtiari, Azarkhsh Mokri, Behroz Dolatshahi, Payman Hassani Abharian

Abstract


Background: Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) is the most important treatment for opioid -dependency recurrence. The aim of this study was to compare the craving level in opioid-dependent individuals and people under methadone maintenance therapy.

Methods: In this case – control study, 120 men with opioid dependency were   selected through  cluster sampling method. They were divided into two groups, 60 people in opioid-dependent group and 60 people in MMT group. Both groups were matched    for age, sex, marital status, education, duration of opioid dependency and method of consumption. Then, they completed INCAS Substance Abuse Profile (ISAP), opiate withdrawal symptoms checklist, self–report of craving, Desire for Drug Questionnaire (DDQ), Obsessive Compulsive Drug   Use Scale (OCDUS) and visual cue-induced craving questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15 using t-test and ANOVA.

Results: Mean craving for drug significantly was lower in MMT group comparing opioid-dependent group (P<0.01).

Conclusion: Methadone Maintenance Therapy decreased the craving for drugs and substances This can have an important role in relapse prevention.

 


Keywords


Keywords: Drug craving, methadone maintenance treatment, opioid

References


Nakhai Sistani R. [Molecular genetics in addiction medicine (Persian)]. Quarterly Journal of Addiction 2008;1(3):24-9.

Ekhtiari H, Ganjgahi H, Hassani Abharian P, Mokri A, Daneshmand R, Tabatabaii H, et al. [Distinctive neuro cognitive aspect of cue-induced craving in treatment seeker and non-treatment seeker heroin smokers in fMRI study homogenous regions in fMRI for drug craving studies (Persian)]. Quarterly Journal of Addiction. 2008;2(2):19-20.

Ekhtiari H, Mokri A, Abharian P, Daneshmand R, Tabatabaii H, Alammehrgerdy Z, et al. [The evaluation of neurocognitive aspects of cue-induced craving: by using fMRI, subjective psychological tests and objective cognitive tasks in heroin smoker before and after one month abstinence (Persian)]. Quarterly Journal of Addiction. 2008;2(2):21-28.

Ekhtiari H. [Neurocognitive basis of drug craving; an overview to evalvation and intervention methods (Persian)]. Quarterly Journal of Addiction. 2008;1(3):90-6.

Calsyn DA, Malcy JA, Saxon AJ. Slow tapering from methadone maintenance in a program encouraging indefinite maintenance. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2006;30(2):159-63.

Barnett PG. The cost-effectiveness of methadone maintenance as a health care intervention. Addiction. 1999;94(4):479-88.

Avants SK, Margolin A, Kosten TR, Cooney NL. Differences between responders and nonresponders to cocaine cues in the laboratory. Addict Behav. 1995;20(2):215-24.

Hassani Abharian P, Ekhtiari H. [Attentional bias and its applications in evaluation of drug craving as a complex emotional state (Persian)]. Quarterly Journal of Addiction. 2008;2(2):49-62.

Mokri A, Ekhtiari H, Norozi A, Farnam R, Ehterami M, Meshkini B. [An introduction to INCAS substance abuse profile (ISAP) (Persian)]. Quarterly Journal of Addiction. 2008;1(4):16-23 .

Sadock B, Sadock V, Ruiz P. Kaplan and Sadock comprehensive textbook of psychiatry. 9th ed. Philadelphia: 2009;1237-419 .

Hassani Abharian P, Ekhtiari H. [SeIf report questionnaires for drug craving assessment (Persian)]. Quarterly Journal of Addiction. 2008;1(4):37-47.

Arefnasab Z, Rahimi Ch , Mohamadi N, Babamahmodi A. [The effect of Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) on the mental health of opium and heroin addicts (Persian)] . Journal of Iranian Psychologist. 2007;4(13):63-52.

Raad E. [Predictor examination of perceived stress and coping styles on rate of drug craving among individuals under methadone maintenance treatment (Persian)]. M.A. Thesis in Psychology. Tehran: Psychology Faculty. Tehrah University. 2009;55-88.

Strasser J, Wiesbeck GA, Meier N, Stohler R, Dürsteler-Macfarland KM. Effects of a single 50% extra dose of methadone on heroin craving and mood in lower- versus higher-dose methadone patients. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010;30(4):450-4.

Greenwald MK. Heroin craving and drug use in opioid-maintained volunteers: effects of methadone dose variations. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2002;10(1):39-46.

de Vos JW, Ufkes JG, van den Brink W, van Brussel GH, de Wolff FA. Craving patterns in methadone maintenance treatment with dextromoramide as adjuvant. Addict Behav. 1999;24(5):707-13.

Dehghani Arani F, Rostami R, Nadali H. [Neurofeedback training for opiate addiction, improvement of mental health and craving (Persian)]. Daneshvar (Raftar) Clinical Psychology and Personality. 2010;17(40):75-84.

Schlauch RC, Gwynn-Shapiro D, Stasiewicz PR, Molnar DS, Lang AR. Affect and craving: positive and negative affect are differentially associated with approach and avoidance inclinations. Addict Behav. 2013;38(4):1970-9.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22110/jkums.v17i11.632

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.